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Emergent/Early Stage aka EE GROUP Sound-Word Level (also see Dyslexia section):
What is sound word knowledge? Sound word knowledge is recognizing and recalling how many letters and how many sounds are in each position of a word. It helps students with dyslexia because they have the tools to help them when they omit letters/sounds in the middle of the word. For this: they need a strong working memory along with categorizing and sequencing skills!
Working Memory: Sequencing & Categorization Cards-Before you begin even alphabetic, I suggest doing activities of phonological awareness, including language and listening. For language and listening, you need to develop their sound word knowledge (described above) as well as their categorization and sequencing skills. (Note: the opportunity to teach ordinal numbers: first, second (next), third (last)).
(Note: they are available online. These Montessori 3-part cards contain all three: category: ex. food items, sequence: steps of opening, and language/listening if done with the child: egg: whole, oval, half, etc..). Again, I suggest doing before alphabetics/phonics. Then, when 90% mastery with objects then move unto alphabetics and phonics (next section). NOTE: THIS WILL INCREASE THEIR WORKING MEMORY IF DONE DAILY. MOST students with dyslexia have a deficient working memory.
Language & Listening Verbiage: first, second, third, beginning, middle, medial, last, hear, listen, sound, letter, word, blend, rhyming and trust.
This is why a phonological awareness deficiency is a commonality in all students with dyslexia. Also, note the last sound to be processed is the middle sound. Just think about what you’re asking them when doing words like /c/ /a/ /t/ and /cat/ whether it be rhyming, segmenting/blending or on-set/rhyme: for example, think about how they need to have a good working memory to process and hold those sounds in their brains!!! This is why the foundation of the phonological awareness continuum including language and listening (specifically categorization and sequencing) are very important as well as working memory (again specifically categorization and sequencing). YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE THEY ARE PROCESSING EACH SOUND BEFORE YOU MOVE ON (ESPECIALLY THE MIDDLE SOUND- DO LOTS OF ASSONANCE GAMES AND LISTENING).
|Ex Alliteration Words||Ex. Assonance Words||Ex. Rhyming Words|
flip-flop fast facing future fell face fame forty
|lonely floats host golden daffodils mote|
|back black crack hack jack tack|
More on Phonological Awareness (text me and I’ll send you more PA PowerPoint resource): https://maxscholar.com/schools/demo/
Sound Word Knowledge (see appendix)
Phonological Awareness (say out verbally after 90% mastery above): you can make it fun and informative. Should be done verbally and can be done as a game in the car as you head down the highway just make sure the visual/tactile component is not present at this time.
For Sequencing, Categorizing and Visual Memory (Do Daily): (pic.-pic) http://jumpingfishes.com/memory/’
Working Memory (Sequencing & Categorizing) http://www.montessorimom.com/thank-you-subscribing/
Transitional Fluent TF GROUP Phrase Level (also see Dyslexia section):
As well, when they exhibit any of the other common characteristics (mentioned under the section dyslexia). Please don’t focus on grade level for a struggling reader (at least until they are automatic and confident with mastery in the isolated sound and word levels)!
ISOLATED SOUND PRACTICE: https://www.facebook.com/260648954343158/videos/485658912283198; https://quizlet.com/_5pn88f?x=1jqt&i=1rtq1r
All students go through these stages of literacy development: They go from individual phonemes and sound combinations (1,2,3,4), to words (3 letters, 2 letters, 4 letters, etc..) then phrases and sentences (1 word, 2 words, 3 words, etc.). Instruction on sound word knowledge should be all sounds and words in isolation (above), once they have mastery (90%) of each stage and level; then, you use commonly practiced leveled trade books or
Remember: REVIEW HOW MANY LETTERS/HOW MANY ANYTIME YOUR ABOUT TO READ OR WRITE A WORD ALONG WITH WHICH ONE COMES: FIRST, NEXT, LAST!!!
During the first two stages (see above), which are the most foundationally important, sound word knowledge will give you what you need to help your student. For the first stage, make sure you present the letter individually and include as many senses as possible (never depend on just auditory). In the second stage, pay attention to word errors that’s if a child misreads a word in isolation and yes, mispronunciations (not with the utmost distinction of all the individual sounds and sound combinations in each position of the word), for the word attack using sound word knowledge-it’s counting how many letters and how many sounds and then being able to encode/decode with 90% mastery at each level (described in more detail later on): Examples of sound word levels include and should be discussed with students before they read: cat (3 letters, 3 sounds), ship (4 letters, 3 sounds) & bring (5 letters, 2 sounds). Note: The student needs to recognize and recall each sound word level with confidence and automatically! The main goal in these first two stages are that students have a strong sound word knowledge which is good for error handling and work attack which are two major strategies for literacy success in students with dyslexia.
ex. 3 letters- 3 sounds
Does your have problems with spelling? This is what has helped me the most. They need to be aware of what they do (deletions, substitutions,etc.) in which position so they know what to look for when they “check their own spelling” (see checklist below). Also, they need sound-word knowledge!!!
Sound Word Knowledge (see appendix) Summary
Note: Sequencing visually and auditory is a frontal lobe issue with categorization, sequencing and time-space awareness which seeking out PT & OT does not hurt!! The (EF) executive functioning is the logic used to analyze and/or evaluate the letters and their sequence, category, and their position in the time/space of the letters/sounds. The students visually and auditorily need to know what comes first, second, and last. Tricky- is the second sound (medial position) is the last sound to be processed; even though, it lies in the medial position. They need to be able to tell you what they process in each position and well as show you!!
Sound Word Knowledge= how many letters and how many sounds. With a movable alphabet , have them with their finger count the letters, count the sounds then make the three sounds (1,2,3) and blend (slide finger, blend, “what do you hear”).
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