Dyslexia Help: Working Memory of Sound Word Knowledge, and Processing (Cook, T., 2020)

Dyslexia Help; Cook’s Independent Tutoring, Coaching, & Consulting,LLC
Helping Those with a Neurodifference Enjoy Learning Again!: “ELBERT develops connection, trust, and love by instilling curiosity, autonomy, and attunement in our students.”
— Read on simplebooklet.com/dyslexiahelp

via: https://heyzine.com/flip-book/f965605a27.html#page/2

Does your child remember what your teaching them one day but for get the next?

Emergent/Early Stage aka EE GROUP Sound-Word Level (also see Dyslexia section): 

What is sound word knowledge?  Sound word knowledge is recognizing and recalling how many letters and how many sounds are in each position of a word. It helps students with dyslexia because they have the tools to help them when they omit letters/sounds in the middle of the word. For this: they need a strong working memory along with categorizing and sequencing skills!

Working Memory: Sequencing & Categorization  Cards-Before you begin even alphabetic, I suggest doing activities of phonological awareness, including language and listening. For language and listening, you need to develop their sound word knowledge (described above) as well as their categorization and sequencing skills. (Note: the opportunity to teach  ordinal numbers: first, second (next), third (last)).

(Note: they are available online. These Montessori 3-part cards contain all three: category: ex. food items, sequence: steps of opening, and language/listening if done with the child: egg: whole, oval, half, etc..). Again, I suggest doing before alphabetics/phonics. Then, when 90% mastery with objects then move unto alphabetics and phonics (next section). NOTE: THIS WILL INCREASE THEIR WORKING MEMORY IF DONE DAILY. MOST students with dyslexia have a deficient working memory.

Language & Listening Verbiage: first, second, third, beginning, middle, medial, last, hear, listen, sound, letter, word, blend, rhyming and trust.

This is why a phonological awareness deficiency is a commonality in all students with dyslexia. Also, note the last sound to be processed is the middle sound. Just think about what you’re asking them when doing words like /c/ /a/ /t/ and /cat/ whether it be rhyming, segmenting/blending or on-set/rhyme: for example,  think about how they need to have a good working memory to process and hold those sounds in their brains!!! This is why the foundation of the phonological awareness continuum including language and listening  (specifically categorization and sequencing) are very important as well as working memory (again specifically categorization and sequencing).  YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE THEY ARE PROCESSING EACH SOUND BEFORE YOU MOVE ON (ESPECIALLY THE MIDDLE SOUND- DO LOTS OF ASSONANCE GAMES AND LISTENING). 

Ex Alliteration WordsEx. Assonance WordsEx. Rhyming Words
flip-flop fast facing future fell face fame forty 
lonely floats host golden daffodils mote
back black crack hack jack tack

More on Phonological Awareness (text me and I’ll send you more PA PowerPoint resource): https://maxscholar.com/schools/demo/

Sound Word Knowledge (see appendix)





Phonological Awareness (say out verbally after 90% mastery above): you can make it fun and informative. Should be done verbally and can be done as a game in the car as you head down the highway just make sure the visual/tactile component is not present at this time. 

For Sequencing, Categorizing and Visual Memory (Do Daily): (pic.-pic) http://jumpingfishes.com/memory/’ 

(pic.-word) https://matchthememory.com/chsounds



Working Memory (Sequencing & Categorizing) http://www.montessorimom.com/thank-you-subscribing/

Transitional Fluent TF GROUP Phrase Level (also see Dyslexia section): 

As well, when they exhibit any of the other common characteristics (mentioned under the section dyslexia). Please don’t focus on grade level for a struggling reader (at least until they are automatic and confident with mastery in the isolated sound and word levels)!

ISOLATED SOUND PRACTICE: https://www.facebook.com/260648954343158/videos/485658912283198; https://quizlet.com/_5pn88f?x=1jqt&i=1rtq1r

ISOLATED WORD PRACTICE:: https://quizlet.com/join/5d7s6t7Zv; https://quizlet.com/_6jr0bn?x=1jqt&i=1rtq1r

All students go through these stages of literacy development: They go from individual phonemes and sound combinations (1,2,3,4), to words (3 letters, 2 letters, 4 letters, etc..) then phrases and sentences (1 word, 2 words, 3 words, etc.). Instruction on sound word knowledge should be all sounds and words in isolation (above), once they have mastery (90%) of each stage and level; then, you use commonly practiced leveled trade books or

BOOKS: https://camellia.overdrive.com





During the first two stages (see above), which are the most foundationally important, sound word knowledge will give you what you need to help your student. For the first stage, make sure you present the letter individually and include as many senses as possible (never depend on just auditory). In the second stage, pay attention to word errors that’s if a child misreads a word in isolation and yes, mispronunciations (not with the utmost distinction of all the individual sounds and sound combinations in each position of the word), for the word attack using  sound  word knowledge-it’s counting how many letters and how many sounds and then being able to encode/decode with 90% mastery at each level (described in more detail later on): Examples of sound word levels include and should be discussed with students before they read: cat (3 letters, 3 sounds), ship (4 letters, 3 sounds) & bring (5 letters, 2 sounds). Note: The student  needs to recognize and recall each sound word level with confidence and automatically! The main goal in these first two stages are that students have a strong sound word knowledge which is good for error handling and work attack which are two major strategies for literacy success in students with dyslexia.   

RESOURCE: https://myelbert.com/oh-good-golly/?preview=true&frame-nonce=8ccfee492e#.X5sM81BOlrQ

ex. 3 letters- 3 sounds

1st 2nd 3rd
c a t


Approx. 75% of my students are not Auditory-Sequentially Strong NOR 66.67% of my students are not Visually Spacial Strong and 58.33% have both Visual-Special and Auditory-Sequential Deficit (Cook, 2020)

Does your have problems with spelling? This is what has helped me the most. They need to be aware of what they do (deletions, substitutions,etc.) in which position so they know what to look for when they “check their own spelling” (see checklist below). Also, they need sound-word knowledge!!!

Sound Word Knowledge (see appendix) Summary

Note: Sequencing visually and auditory is a frontal lobe issue with categorization, sequencing and time-space awareness which seeking out PT & OT does not hurt!! The (EF) executive functioning is the logic used to analyze and/or evaluate the letters and their sequence, category, and their position in the time/space of the letters/sounds. The students visually and auditorily need to know what comes first, second, and last. Tricky- is the second sound (medial position) is the last sound to be processed; even though, it lies in the medial position. They need to be able to tell you what they process in each position and well as show you!! 

Sound Word Knowledge= how many letters and how many sounds. With a movable alphabet , have them with their finger count the letters, count the sounds then make the three sounds (1,2,3) and blend (slide finger, blend, “what do you hear”).

Spelling Resource: https://lookingtohealourownlearningdifference.org/2020/08/26/free-morphology-for-spelling-matrices/

Sight Words: https://lookingtohealourownlearningdifference.org/2020/10/15/favor-helping-those-with-a-learning-difference-enjoy-learning-again/



To Learn More Go To: www.myelbert.com

#dyslexia #dyslexiaawareness #adhd #dyslexic #autism #dyslexiaeducation #dysgraphia #dyslexiaadvocate #education #dyslexiasupport #specialeducation #learningdisabilities #dyscalculia #dyspraxia #specialneeds #saydyslexia #dyslexiaisreal #dyslexiapower #learningdisability #learning #madebydyslexia #neurodiversity #reading #dyslexiamom #learningdifficulties #ortongillingham #dyslexicadvantage #autismawareness #asd #bhfyp #montessori


Published by Tricia Cook, MEd., Online Dyslexia and Behavioral Interventionist, RSP, AA O-G Tutor & Montessorian

My interest is in helping parents and teachers to understand learning and behavioral challenges and to love learning again. I graduated from Auburn in ECE in 1998. I have been a Montessori teacher here in Birmingham for almost 12 years and have lived in Birmingham for the past 19 years. As an early childhood teacher, I want continue to grow and develop as a constant learner. In 2012, I graduated from Secondary Education with a P-12 Reading Specialist certification the University of Alabama. As a Reading Specialist, I train on diversity and literacy development; I have a specialized knowledge of assessment and diagnosis that is vital for developing, implementing, and evaluating your literacy and neurodiversity behavioral, character development programing. Also, I have varying experiences designing instruction and environments for Montessori and Non-Montessori (OSR-Pre-K) environments. Therefore, I can consult for any environment or setting! In 2013, I attained my highly qualified status in ECE and Reading. In 2013, I also got my Orton-Gillingham AA tutor certification. I currently tutor full-time along with consulting. I have actually been tutoring since 2003. Along with other independent tutoring/interventionist experiences, I have brought dozens of students from an emergent to an advanced reading level! In addition to tutoring, I have provided the reading strengths and needs of my students and share that information to classroom teachers, parents, specialized teachers, and other stakeholders.  Lastly, I have also been a trainer/presenter, since 2008 and really enjoy this aspect of my career. As an experienced trainer, I have trained on many topics including: literacy (the five components), classroom management, positive discipline, diversity character development, Montessori Philosophy, policies and procedures, child development, and Alabama's Pre-k. Take note: Schools and families are desperately looking for an alternative type of affordable multi-sensory, hands-on, and interesting instruction. Currently, I am training and interested in writing on the following topics: A Comparison of Pre-K to Kindergarten; Adolescent Literacy (7th+); Assessment; Developing Readers; Children’s Literature; Classroom Management Techniques; Comprehension; Montessori Philosophy; Environmental Print & Early Writing; Family Attachment; Language and Literacy; Outdoor Classroom; Poetry Writing (7th+); Positive Guidance; Fine-motor Development; Cursive Writing; Creative Writing; Comprehension: Study Skills/Test Taking Strategies; Morphology; Phonics Instruction; Diversity Education; Neurodiversity Education; HandWriting; Reading Strategies; Best Practices P-12. Thank you, Tricia Cook, MEd., RSP, AOG; https://linktr.ee/tcooktutor

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