Reading IN Research For Literacy: Looking to Heal OUR Own [Learning] Difference Through Discovering Mind Maps, Answering “Synonymous Whys”, and Critical Thinking (Cook, 2020)

Does your child or yourself have problems comprehending what you read? Here are some skills, strategies and tools.

** PowerPoint Available- https://quizlet.com/_5qevqh?x=1jqt&i=1rtq1r

***Video Available

1)      Introduce 3: before, during, after reading strategies (I do)

2)      Practice Strategies (We do)

3)     Students Practice (You do)

Goal: Students use the strategies independently.

Comprehension** USE REWORDIFY https://rewordify.com/ or READWORKS https://www.readworks.org/: https://www.websiteplanet.com/blog/learn-english-free-books/.

Vocabulary** USE 2020 SAT WORDS https://blog.prepscholar.com/sat-vocabulary-words

The two phases of reading for understanding: 

Pre-read (1st read)- “fix-up” errors, fluency and vocabulary

Example the word graciousness is pronounced by the student.

  1. Go to https://www.voicetube.com and search the word and watch 3 min. video.

2) Go to https://www.thefreedictionary.com. Have the students make the diagram after searching the word:

3) Go to Google Pronounce: https://www.google.com/searchpronounce. Have the student pronounce the word.

*** after the “fix up” re-read complete word, phrase, or sentence in order ”to make the brain happy!” Remember: students need a Complete beginning, middle and end for processing! 

Real Read (2nd read)- comprehension, visualization strategies 

  • track and point with finger when reading- no more sliding just point to sounds or sound combinations (not letters)  ”bunny hop”-1, 2, 3, READ 
  • check your vowel, and hold the vowel
  • Any word doesn’t look right and/or sound right then, reread or rewrite (u-turn). This applies to words and whole sentences! 
  • word chucking aka phrase reading (sing or that 3-4 words)
  • vocabulary- do you recognize any part of the word, cover last then first- later, split in the middle and find meaning
  • write down hard words-tutor look ahead for “word review”- predict problems to increase success
  • sentence grouping- goal to TOP every =(1-2), (3-4) and think about reading
  • do L-V Skills= Listening-Visual Skills  

L- who, where, when, what, how and why 

On the hand

V- image, imaging moving in head- like a “movie”

  • list-form thinking (2-3 words) front of notecard- “fix up” words, on the back put a list of keywords and important info. from story. 
  • always check your writing 

Other Strategies and Tools for the Real-Read

Inferring/Predicting Strategy

Inferring/Predicting StrategyGradeDescription: Inferring is the process of creating a personal and unique meaning from text. It involves a mental process that combines what is read with relevant prior knowledge (schema) and predicting what will happen in the text.
KWLK+You can help by encouraging a child to talk about what she has read, by pointing out new words and explaining their meaning, and by using strategies such as the K-W-L approach to help children understand what they read.
STWK+STW can be used to help students focus on illustrations by asking What do I See? What do I Think? and What do I Wonder? This strategy will enable students to fully experience picture books.
Concept Sort1.8+Picture cards are grouped/categorized with the students. A small group project.
DRTA1.9+    The Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a comprehension strategy that guides students in asking questions about a text, making predictions, and then reading to confirm or refute their predictions. The DRTA process encourages students to be active and thoughtful readers, enhancing their comprehension.
Think-Pair-Share2.8+Students work together as a team to answer a question. They can be timed by the time keeper. A good way for reciprocal teaching. The students and teacher work together as a team to learn.
SQ3R2.8+Students begin by surveying or previewing the text, looking for text features that will help them make predictions about content and begin to create a scaffold for their learning. Based on their survey, they develop questions that they will answer as they read.
ReQuest2.8+A strategy that  is designed to encourage students to: a) formulate their own questions about the material they are reading and develop questioning behavior; b) adopt an active, inquiring attitude to reading; c) acquire reasonable purposes for reading; and, d) improve their independent reading comprehension skills.
Anticipation Guides2.8+A type of graphic organize- the anticipation guide to preview a story before you read it. Before reading, mark whether or not you agree or disagree with each statement. After reading the story, fill in the page number where you found the answer to each statement, tell whether or not you were right, and reflect on what you found.
QAR2.8+The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure. The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD.
Reciprocal Teaching***2.8+The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. Each strategy was selected for a specific purpose.
Story Impressions3+The whole idea of this strategy is to give students an opportunity to predict what is going to happen in the story. The teacher creates a list of words from the story that reveal key aspects of the story, including setting, character names or descriptions, plot, and resolution. The student writes the story using these words and phrases. The stories are then shared with the group before the actual story is read.
Questing the Author (QtA)3.6+Students read an informational article. They explore questions about the author’s viewpoint, purpose, and style. After analyzing the text, students share their responses, feedback, and evaluations about the effectiveness of the selection.
Concept Def. Map3.6+A rather complex but worthwhile graphic organizer.
Reading In Research5+
(Cook’s VERY OWN) Reading IN Research For Literacy: Looking to Heal OUR Own [Learning] Difference Through Discovering Mind Maps, Answering “Synonymous Whys”, and Critical Thinking https://lookingtohealourownlearningdifference.org/

Other      
Bloom’s Taxonomy Describe problem solving applying information to produce some result use of facts, rules and principles : how is … an example of …? how is … related to …? why is … significant? We ask students to compare, contrast, illustrate, and classify. Teachers ask oral questions and uses graphic organizers such as Venn Diagrams and T-charts.
Other Graphic Organizers1.6+Look at complexity to determine use. Model during whole group ideally can be used by the individual independently to help them organize their thoughts about the text. A good way to have them thinks about what they read. Also, good for setting goals before they read. 
LINK Select a key word or concept: Students will write the word on the chalkboard or transparency. Give students three minutes to list on paper their associations for the word. Ask students to share association.  List student ideas without comment.
Schema Stories A small group of independent readers (four to six children. To have students read for meaning. To have students practice predicting where meaningful sequences fit together.
Admit Slips At the beginning of class or as a brief homework assignment, students are given a slip of paper or index card along with a specific prompt—printed on the paper, written on the board, or delivered orally by the teacher. Students may keep the admit slips throughout class to refer to and add to as they read. The teacher may ask for volunteers to read their admit slips to the class or the students may turn them in so the teacher can read some of them aloud and respond to them.

Determining Importance Strategy

Determining Importance StrategyGradeDescription: Proficient learners make purposeful and spontaneous decisions about what is important in text at the: word level words that carry the meaning are contentives — words that connect are functors — contentives tend to be more important to the overall meaning of passage than functors; sentence level there are usually key sentences that carry the weight of meaning for a paragraph, passage or section — often, especially in non-fiction.
Think-Pair-Share2.8+Students work together as a team to answer a question. They can be timed by the time keeper. A good way for reciprocal teaching. The students and teacher work together as a team to learn.
Reciprocal Teaching2.8+The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. Each strategy was selected for a specific purpose.  
SQ3R2.8+Students begin by surveying or previewing the text, looking for text features that will help them make predictions about content and begin to create a scaffold for their learning. Based on their survey, they develop questions that they will answer as they read.
Story Impressions3+The whole idea of this strategy is to give students an opportunity to predict what is going to happen in the story. The teacher creates a list of words from the story that reveal key aspects of the story, including setting, character names or descriptions, plot, and resolution. The student writes the story using these words and phrases. The stories are then shared with the group before the actual story is read.
Reading In Research7+
(Cook’s VERY OWN) Reading IN Research For Literacy: Looking to Heal OUR Own [Learning] Difference Through Discovering Mind Maps, Answering “Synonymous Whys”, and Linking Words: https://lookingtohealourownlearningdifference.org/2020/08/27/ctrl-f-search-linking-words/
Other      
Other Graphic Organizers1.6+Look at complexity to determine use Model during whole group ideally can be used by the individual independently to help them organize their thoughts about the text. A good way to have them thinks about what they read. Also, good for setting goals before they read. 

During Reading- Building Knowledge Phase

 Clarifying StrategyGradeDescription: Become aware of when unfamiliar vocabulary word or an idea that confuses you. Students will use strategies to help them better understand the text.
KWLK+You can help by encouraging a child to talk about what she has read, by pointing out new words and explaining their meaning, and by using strategies such as the K-W-L approach to help children understand what they read.
Think-Aloud1.9+After spending weeks, sometimes months, modeling your own thinking processes through THINK ALOUDS on a single strategy in a variety of texts, students will gradually be asked to assume responsibility for using the strategy independently as they read.
Reciprocal Teaching***2.8+The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. Each strategy was selected for a specific purpose.
Rainbows3+A strategy provided them with guidance during reading. The strategy can be modified and used with texts in different languages. The authors encourage teachers to check in with individual students and monitor their understanding and usage of each strategy regularly.
Two-Column3.5+This strategy helps students pull the main ideas out of what they read and organize the information effectively. It is very much like outlining without all of the strict rules of formatting. The left-hand column is usually used for the main ideas, which are often the subtopics presented in the selection. The right-hand side is used for elaboration, details about the main ideas.
Other      
Cubing Cubing is a cooperative reading and writing strategy that encourages critical thinking.  This strategy guides students to construct meaning, discuss, and write about the text from six different perspectives. 
Read and Say Something Use this strategy as a SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY with complex reading: Leader is the first to read a section (paragraph or page). The person to the right asks a question or makes a comment related to the section read. All students in the group must listen and participate by answering the question or continuing the conversation. THEN, the person to the right reads the next session, and the process continues until the reading is complete.
Response Journal A quick sketch or remark on each index card about the section you have read. Next to each box, write three quick notes describing the section you have read. Ex.
Other Graphic Organizers1.6+Look at complexity to determine use. Model during whole group ideally can be used by the individual independently to help them organize their thoughts about the text. A good way to have them thinks about what they read. Also, good for setting goals before they read. 
3mp It is a strategy including a three minute pause to 1. Summarize Key Points So Far 2. Add Your Own Thoughts 3. Pose Clarifying Questions

Questioning  Strategy

Questioning  StrategyGradeDescription: Proficient readers ask questions to: ∗ clarify meaning; ∗ speculate about text yet to be read; ∗ to show skepticism or a critical stance; ∗ determine an author’s intent, style, content, or format; ∗ locate a specific answer in text, or; ∗ consider rhetorical questions inspired by the text..
KWLK+You can help by encouraging a child to talk about what she has read, by pointing out new words and explaining their meaning, and by using strategies such as the K-W-L approach to help children understand what they read.
STWK+STW can be used to help students focus on illustrations by asking What do I See? What do I Think? and What do I Wonder? This strategy will enable students to fully experience picture books.
ReQuest2.8+A strategy that  is designed to encourage students to: a) formulate their own questions about the material they are reading and develop questioning behavior; b) adopt an active, inquiring attitude to reading; c) acquire reasonable purposes for reading; and, d) improve their independent reading comprehension skills.
QAR2.8+The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure. The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD.
Think-Aloud1.9+After spending weeks, sometimes months, modeling your own thinking processes through THINK ALOUDS on a single strategy in a variety of texts, students will gradually be asked to assume responsibility for using the strategy independently as they read.
Questing the Author3.6+Students read an informational article. They explore questions about the author’s viewpoint, purpose, and style. After analyzing the text, students share their responses, feedback, and evaluations about the effectiveness of the selection.
Other      
Other Graphic Organizers1.6+Look at complexity to determine use. Model during whole group ideally can be used by the individual independently to help them organize their thoughts about the text. A good way to have them thinks about what they read. Also, good for setting goals before they read. 
Big Books with Post-its Before reading the text, the teacher strategically places post-its over words or phrases in the big book. The post-it’s cover up important information to be answered by students usually in unison.
3mp It is a strategy including a three minute pause to 1. Summarize Key Points So Far 2. Add Your Own Thoughts 3. Pose Clarifying Questions
Bloom’s TaxonomyK+Describe problem solving applying information to produce some result use of facts, rules and principles : how is … an example of …? how is … related to …? why is … significant? We ask students to compare, contrast, illustrate, and classify. Teachers ask oral questions and uses graphic organizers such as Venn Diagrams and T-charts.

Synthesizing Strategy

Synthesizing StrategyGradeDescription (*note: used during and after read) ∗ Proficient readers are aware of changes in their ideas and conclusions about text as they read further into the text; ∗ Proficient readers understand and can articulate how their thinking about a given text evolves and/or as the text itself changes; ∗ Proficient readers maintain a cognitive synthesis as they read. They monitor the overall meaning and themes in the text as they read and are aware of the ways text elements “fit together” to create that overall meaning and theme;
KWLK+You can help by encouraging a child to talk about what she has read, by pointing out new words and explaining their meaning, and by using strategies such as the K-W-L approach to help children understand what they read.
Think-Aloud1.9+After spending weeks, sometimes months, modeling your own thinking processes through THINK ALOUDS on a single strategy in a variety of texts, students will gradually be asked to assume responsibility for using the strategy independently as they read.
Reciprocal Teaching***2.8+The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. Each strategy was selected for a specific purpose.
Post It’s2.8+The post-it’s have a letter on top right corner helping the student mark or notice certain elements of literacy. Ex. v= vocabulary m=main idea, etc.. After completed they can be placed on a graphic organizer or scrape paper. Then, used to summarize important information.
SQ3R2.8+Students begin by surveying or previewing the text, looking for text features that will help them make predictions about content and begin to create a scaffold for their learning. Based on their survey, they develop questions that they will answer as they read.
Selective Highlighting3.6+Selective Highlighting/Underlining is used to help students organize what they have read by selecting what is important. This strategy teaches students to highlight/underline ONLY the key words, phrases, vocabulary, and ideas that are central to understanding the reading.
Other      
Other Graphic Organizers1.6+Look at complexity to determine use. Model during whole group ideally can be used by the individual independently to help them organize their thoughts about the text. A good way to have them thinks about what they read. Also, good for setting goals before they read. 

Visualizing Strategy

Visualizing StrategyGradeDescription: Proficient learners spontaneously and purposefully create images while and after they read. The images emerge from all five senses and the emotions and are anchored in a reader’s prior knowledge. Proficient readers use images to immerse themselves in rich detail as they read. The detail gives depth and dimension to the reading, engaging the reader and making the text more memorable
KWLK+You can help by encouraging a child to talk about what she has read, by pointing out new words and explaining their meaning, and by using strategies such as the K-W-L approach to help children understand what they read.
Think-Aloud1.9+After spending weeks, sometimes months, modeling your own thinking processes through THINK ALOUDS on a single strategy in a variety of texts, students will gradually be asked to assume responsibility for using the strategy independently as they read.
Reciprocal Teaching***2.8+The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. Each strategy was selected for a specific purpose.
SQ3R2.8+Students begin by surveying or previewing the text, looking for text features that will help them make predictions about content and begin to create a scaffold for their learning. Based on their survey, they develop questions that they will answer as they read.
Post It’s2.8+The post-it’s have a letter on top right corner helping the student mark or notice certain elements of literacy. Ex. v= vocabulary m=main idea, etc.. After completed they can be placed on a graphic organizer or scrape paper. Then, used to summarize important information.
Other      
Other Graphic Organizers1.6+Look at complexity to determine use. Model during whole group ideally can be used by the individual independently to help them organize their thoughts about the text. A good way to have them thinks about what they read. Also, good for setting goals before they read. 

After Reading- Consolation Phase

Summarizing StrategyGradeDescription: Retelling and Summarizing- In your own words (written or oral discussion- both), give a brief statement that contains all the important ideas.
KWLK+You can help by encouraging a child to talk about what she has read, by pointing out new words and explaining their meaning, and by using strategies such as the K-W-L approach to help children understand what they read.
Think-Pair-Share2.8+Students work together as a team to answer a question. They can be timed by the time keeper. A good way for reciprocal teaching. The students and teacher work together as a team to learn.
Reciprocal Teaching***2.8+The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. Each strategy was selected for a specific purpose.
Other      
Other Graphic Organizers (ex. Venn)1.6+Look at complexity to determine use. Model during whole group ideally can be used by the individual independently to help them organize their thoughts about the text. A good way to have them thinks about what they read. Also, good for setting goals before they read. 
Story Mapping A visual depiction of the settings or the sequence of major events and actions of story characters. This procedure enables students to relate story events and to perceive structure in literary selections. By sharing personal interpretations of stories through illustrations, students increase their understanding and appreciation of selections. Story maps can be used as frameworks for storytelling or retelling, and as outlines for story writing.
Discussion Web A Discussion Web helps students visualize the key elements of an issue and quickly identify opposing points of view on the matter. This organizational tool guides discussions by allowing students to identify ideas of contention, to weigh opposing viewpoints, to critically evaluate the arguments, and to draw conclusions.
Writing using Writers Workshop Format rehearsing, drafting, revising, editing, sharing (RDRES)
Learning Log Students integrate content, process, and personal feelings. Learning logs operate from the stance that students learn from writing rather than writing what they have learned. The common application is to have students make entries in their logs during the last five minutes of class or after each completed week of class. The message here is that short, frequent bursts of writing are more productive over time than are infrequent, longer assignments.
GIST Define what the “gist” of something is. Read the first paragraph/section of the assigned reading. The size of the section will depend upon the grade level and size of the complete text. Write a 20 word summary that describes the main idea in that section. Read the second paragraph/section of the assigned reading. Write a 20 word summary that combines the material in the first gist statement and the new material. Continue this procedure until a 20 word summary is created for the entire reading.
Journals-Logs Metacognition involves understanding how you came to learn something. Use this page to help you think about what you learned and how you learned it. There are several types of journals and logs available.
Exit Slips Slips of paper that the student turns in stating any question they may still have, what they learned etc.
Save-the-Last Word Students are given 3×5 note cards. It is explained that after reading an assigned passage, they are to find three to five quotations from the text that they really like. Students then read the material and write one quotation on one side of each card. On the other side, they tell why they like it. Students then share their quotations, one at a time.
Two-Column3.5+This strategy helps students pull the main ideas out of what they read and organize the information effectively. It is very much like outlining without all of the strict rules of formatting. The left-hand column is usually used for the main ideas, which are often the subtopics presented in the selection. The right-hand side is used for elaboration, details about the main ideas.
Cubing Cubing is a cooperative reading and writing strategy that encourages critical thinking.  This strategy guides students to construct meaning, discuss, and write about the text from six different perspectives. 

Vocabulary**

StrategyGrade 
Word Work-SortsK+Closed sort (teacher-defined categories): • Select a group of words to be studied. • Identify labels for each category based on the word study skill or concept being studied (e.g. words with the base word migrate and the base word nation; or words that are adverbs and words that are adjectives). • Ask students to sort the words into the appropriate categories noticing the relationship between the words. • Type words so they are ready to be cut out and manipulated for younger children. Older students could copy from the overhead or the board as they choose where to place the words (see Vocabulary Resources section for sample). Open sort (student-defined categories): • Ask students to select the categories based on their own criteria. • Discuss why the students placed the words in each category.
KWLK+You can help by encouraging a child to talk about what she has read, by pointing out new words and explaining their meaning, and by using strategies such as the K-W-L approach to help children understand what they read.
Word Splash1.7+A Word Splash is an additional way for students to organize words. It allows students to classify words in a category and the different ways one word can be used
Concept Sort1.8+Picture cards are grouped/categorized with the students. A small group project.
Think-Aloud1.9+After spending weeks, sometimes months, modeling your own thinking processes through THINK ALOUDS on a single strategy in a variety of texts, students will gradually be asked to assume responsibility for using the strategy independently as they read.
DRTA1.9+The Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a comprehension strategy that guides students in asking questions about a text, making predictions, and then reading to confirm or refute their predictions. The DRTA process encourages students to be active and thoughtful readers, enhancing their comprehension.
Reciprocal Teaching***2.8+The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. Each strategy was selected for a specific purpose.
SQ3R2.8+Students begin by surveying or previewing the text, looking for text features that will help them make predictions about content and begin to create a scaffold for their learning. Based on their survey, they develop questions that they will answer as they read.
Frayer Model3.5+Analyze the key word or concept you will be presenting to the students. Develop a list of characteristics that are critical to the definition of the word.
Semantic Feature Analysis3.5+Semantic Feature Analysis uses a grid to help you explore how a set of things are related to one another. By analyzing the grid you’ll be able to see connections, make predictions and master important concepts. You’ll also realize things that you don’t know yet, so you’ll know what additional research you need to do.
Other      
Bottom up To be effective, an extensive and long-term vocabulary development program accompanying a parallel schemata or background-knowledge-development program is probably called for. Instead of preteaching vocabulary for single reading passages, teachers should teach vocabulary and background knowledge concurrently for sets of passages to be read at some later time.
Cloze Ex. There are four types of poisonous snakes in North America. One of these is ___ rattlesnake, which belongs to ___ family that is often___ pit viper. T
In the List-Group-Label Brainstorming allows students to share words they know that are associated with a key concept. Students access their prior knowledge in relation to the concept the teacher has chosen for their focus. Producing lists of words helps students be aware of how much they know about the topic and captures their interest in a topic or concept.
Other Graphic Organizers1.6+Look at complexity to determine use. Model during whole group ideally can be used by the individual independently to help them organize their thoughts about the text. A good way to have them thinks about what they read. Also, good for setting goals before they read. 

Fluency**

Reading Together: StrategyDescription
Readers TheatreIn this lesson, students develop scripts, perform in groups, and practice using their voice to depict characters from texts. Through this activity, students have the opportunity to develop fluency and further enhance comprehension of what they are reading.
Cue Phrase Boundaries in TextIn the summer/I like/to swim/at the beach.// Although it’s very hot/ I like the idea/ of being in the cool water/ all day.// Summer truly is/ my favorite time/ of the year.// Phrase-Cued Text Weekly Practice (5 days) Day 1 *select, copy, and distribute a marked text passage (100-250 wds) *model reading the marked text aloud 2 or 3 times as students follow along *have students use the marked text to read aloud chorally—discuss content
Literature Circles- Alternatively called “reading circle,”This group approach to reading can improve and extend students’ understanding of what they read. Although it is often used with fiction, it also works well with informational text. The strategy may involve students assuming roles within their circle, i.e., “leader,” “summarizer,” “connector,” etc. A variation on this idea may be found in Jennifer Bernhard’s best practice seventh-grade social studies lesson.
Shared ReadingThe shared reading model often uses oversized books (referred to as big books) with enlarged print and illustrations. As the teacher reads the book aloud, all of the children who are being read to can see and appreciate the print and illustrations.
Paired ReadingPaired reading is a technique that allows tutors to vary the amount of support they provide to a child while reading aloud together. Explain to the child that sometimes you will read aloud together – duet reading – and sometimes he or she will read alone – solo reading. Agree on two signals the child can use to switch back and forth from solo to duet reading. When the child gives you the duet signal, you will begin reading together. When the child feels ready for solo reading, she will give the solo signal and you will stop reading
Guided ReadingThe GRP, otherwise known as the Guided Reading Procedure, may be used with both narrative and expository texts. This strategy is designed to assist students in recalling what has been read, to help them generate their own questions while reading, to instill the importance of self-correction, and to improve organizational skills. GRP is most appropriate in middle school through college-level classrooms.
Text Sets- Study CirclesThe text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. However, text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare, contrast, and make connections in a reading discussion group. Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author.
Read AloudReading a text aloud: modeling what good readers do purposefully interacting with the text
Echo ReadingThis is another way to help a child develop confidence and fluency. Read aloud a line of text. Ask the child to read the same line. Continue taking turns reading and rereading the same lines. When the child begins to read with more expression and fluency, suggest that he read aloud on his own.
Coral ReadingThis strategy helps children become more fluent and confident readers. Hold the book together and ask the child to read along with you. Begin reading in a voice that is slightly louder and faster than the child’s. As the child becomes more comfortable with reading the text, lower your voice and slow down your reading speed. If the child slows down, increase your volume and speed again.
Re-readingThe repeated readings of the same story serve various purposes. The first reading is for enjoyment; the second may focus on building and extending comprehension of the selection; a third might focus attention on the interesting language and vocabulary; a fourth might focus on decoding, using the words in the selection as a starting point for teaching word identification skills.
Independent-@indepRL Aka SSRSELF-SELECTED READING occurs DAILY • Access to books • Comfortable reading environment • Quiet reading environment Also, increase vocabulary!
DEARDrop Everything And Read (DEAR) time is a time that is set aside daily for independent reading by both students and teachers. Every person in the class is to drop everything and read. DEAR time takes in consideration a variety of student interests and ability levels, because each student selects for himself or herself the book or books he or she wishes to read.

Word Knowledge

StrategyGradeEx. Activities
Alphabet KnowledgePreschool-K+Description: Alphabet knowledge is naming the letters of the alphabet and recognizing the letter symbols in print (
  ·         HM-AlphaTales (Animals Shaped Letters) ·         Three Period Lesson ·         Moveable Alphabet ·         Sandpaper Letters ·         Leap Frog ·         Alphabet Books
Phonological Awareness**/***Preschool-K+Description: Is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate sounds of spoken language.
Lang. and Listening ·         Around the World ·         Morning Message ·         Telephone ·         Books ·         HM Language Cards ·         Vocabulary-picture-word cards
Rhyming ·         Cloze Procedure-chants, songs ·         Rhyming BINGO ·         Rhyming Concentration ·         Nursery Rhyme Journal •           ·         HM Language Cards ·         Thumbs UP
Alliteration ·         Cloze Procedure ·         Alliteration Listing •      ·         HM Language Cards ·         Alliteration folder ·         Word Wall
Syllables (start w/ first name, last, address) ·         Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes..Tell Me How ·         Tambourine ·         HM Language Cards ·         STOMP ·         Syllable Match
Sentence segmenting (start with sentence, word, letter) ·         Morning Message ·         Sentence Strips ·         Common Stories
Phonemic AwarenessK+Description: It is the ability to think notice, think about and work with individual sounds in spoken words.
Onset-rime ·         Leap Frog ·         Word Study- Word Work ·         Word Study- Word Work ·         Home-made Books
Blending & Segmenting Phonemes/letter patterns ·         Slinky Game ·         ARM
PhonicsK+Description: A method of teaching beginners to read and pronounce words by learning the phonetic value of letters, letter groups, and especially syllables
Letter Sounds Blends/Digraphs Phonetic Rules Special Vowel Sounds Special Consonants     ·         Decoding Games ·         Sound Boxes ·         Who Let the A Out ·         I Spy ·         Knock,,,Knock ·         HM Phonics Center ·         HM letter cards ·         Word Play ·         Word Wall

Handwriting-Writing-Spelling

P-12nd-3rd
ABC Order Write your words in alphabetical order  Rainbow Words Write your words in three colors  Picture Words Draw a picture and write your words in the picture  Scrambled Words Write your words and then write them again with the letters mixed  Ransom Words Write your words by cutting out letters in a newspaper or magazine and glue them on a paper  Pyramid Words Write your words adding one letter at a time  Words-In-Words Write your word and then write at least 2 words made from each  Delicious Words Write your words in whipped cream, peanut butter, or anything you can eat  Good Clean Words Write your words in shaving cream on a counter or some other surface that can be cleaned safely  Dirty Words Write your words in mud or sand  Pasta Words Write your words by arranging alphabet pasta or Alphabits. Glue on paper or bring me a note from a parent and do on a table or counter at home  3D Words Use modeling clay rolled thinly to make your words  Magazine Words Use an old magazine or newspaper and find your word  Cheer Your Words Pretend you are a cheerleader and call out your words  Sound Words Use tape recorder and record your words and their spelling  X Words Write two words having one common letter so they criss-cross  Other Handed If you are right-handed, write with your left, or vice versa  Choo-Choo Words Write the entire list end-to-end as one long word, using different colors of crayon or ink for different words  Silly String With a long length of string, “write” words in cursive, using the string to shape the letters.  Back Writing Using your finger, draw each letter on a partners’ back, having the partner say the word when completed  Telephone Words Translate your words into numbers from a telephone keypad  Flash Writing In a darkened room, use a flashlight to draw letters in the air  Newspaper Words Search a newspaper page from top to bottom, circling each letter of a word as you find it  30 Second Words Write a TV commercial using all the words from your list  Popsicles Make words using popsicle sticks  Secret Agent Words Number the alphabet from 1 to 26, then convert your words to a number code  Etch-A-Word Use an Etch-A-Sketch to write your words·         Writing Chart ·         Possible Sentences ·         Choosing a topic The child decides what she wants to write about. You can help the child come up with a topic by thinking about his own experiences or books he has read. ·         Drafting The child is likely to write several drafts of the same piece. Writing evolves over time so first drafts differ greatly from final ones. During the drafting step, young children may talk and draw as much as they write. Many times their first drafts are quite short. First drafts are likely to have grammatical, spelling, and punctuation mistakes. At this point in the writing process, you do not need to correct these mistakes. The child will correct these mistakes as she revises, rewrites, and edits subsequent drafts. You can support the child by responding to the content of her drafts and asking questions to help her focus on how to express her ideas clearly. ·         Revising The child might decide she is no longer interested in the topic she chose or she might decide to expand it. Younger children are likely to make their stories longer. More experienced writers might add to descriptions, move sections, or rewrite sentences or paragraphs. You can continue to offer support by answering questions, making suggestions, and responding to the child’s ideas. ·         Conferencing In classroom writing workshops, children discuss their drafts and get encouragement and feedback from teachers and peers. You can assume this role by listening, asking questions, and making comments that guide the child to improve writing drafts. ·         Sharing This helps children understand how their audience responds to their writing. They learn what the audience understood and what they did not. This helps children make their messages as clear as possible. You can serve as the audience for a child’s writing and encourage the child’s family to do the same. ·         Editing Older children finalize their drafts by reviewing and correcting errors in punctuation, grammar, and spelling. Ask the child to circle the words she thinks are misspelled. Many children have a visual memory that lets them know that a word is not written conventionally, even if they don’t know how to spell it. Help the child use a dictionary to look up correct spellings. ·         Publishing This step lets the child make the writing available to others. A tutoring program could accomplish this through a newsletter or collection of children’s finished work. A child might bind her work with a cover and illustrations and share it with her family and teacher      
ALLGrades
ABC books Accordion books Advertisements Advice columns Almanacs Anecdotes Applications Articles Banners Bingo game Biographies Biographical sketches Book jackets or blurbs Booklets Books Book reviews Book responses Calendars Cartoons Collages Comic strips Contracts Data Disks Debates Demonstrations Descriptions Dialogues Dialogue Journal Diaries Dictations Diorama Dictionaries Directions Directories Dry Erase Editorials/Op-Eds Epitaphs Fantasies Flap books Flip charts Folktales Ghost stories Graphic Organizer Greeting cards Grocery List Guides Handbooks Headlines Historical timelines Historical sketches Homemade Books Interviews Jingles Jokes (riddles/puzzles/etc.) Legends Journals Lesson Plans Letters (formal/personal/etc.) Limericks ListListening Walk- Clip Board Logs Manuals Memos Menus Monologues Morning Message Murals Musicals Myths Newscast Newspaper article Notebook Observation Notes Playbills Plays Poems Pop-up books Postcards Posters Proposals Quilts Quote Book Radio report Reading Autobiography Rebuttals Receipts Requests Responses Resumes Reviews Sales presentation Schedules Science fiction Science Journals Scrapbooks Scripts Shared Pen Songs Speeches Stories Story Cube Story wheels Summaries Table of Contents Tall tales Technical manuals Telegrams Templates Tongue twisters Travel brochures Travelogues Triaromas Tributes Videos Wanted posters Webpages Word Wall Words Yearbooks

Virtual Literacy

GradeResource:
PGames- brainpop.com, http://www.starfall.com
KGames- brainpop.com, http://www.starfall.com
1stGames- brainpop.com   Story- Word Processing or web published – mixbooks etc., DTP, Presentation, podcasting, photostory, voicethread   Song-finale notepad, Word Processing, Sound recorder, Audacity, podcasting, recording narration in presentations [photostory 3, powerpoint, impress
2ndPresentation-presentation tools – Powerpoint, Impress, Zoho presentation tool, Photostory, Google present. Comic creation tools – comic life, hypercomic, online tools   Comic creation tools – comic life, historic tale construction kit, Animations – http://www.dvolver.com) Programming Visual Studio.net (& Express the free version) Lego Mindstorms & Robolab, Scratch, Alice.
3rdFilm-Movie maker, Pinnacle Studio, Adobe premier elements Online tools http://www.jumpcut.com, http://www.eyespot.com, http://www.pinnacleshare.com, http://www.cuts.com, http://www.animoto.com, http://www.dvolver.com

ELL/ESL

  http://www.icdlbooks.org/ (Great site for books around the world – inviting children to be part of a global community.)    Free books to read on site, many multilingual. https://ttms.box.net/flp            http://eslus.com/eslcenter.htm   http://eslsite.com/   http://www.catesol.org/resource.html   http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/678/01/

References- Additional Websites

Readers Theatre: http://www.aaronshep.com/rt/ http://www.teachingheart.net/readerstheater.htm http://www.cdli.ca/CITE/langrt.htm http://www.geocities.com/EnchantedForest/Tower/3235 http://www.storycart.com http://loiswalker.com/catalog/guidesamples.html http://www.readinglady.com http://home.sprynet.com/~palermo/intr_rdio.htm http://home.sprynet.com/~palermo/radiokit.htm http://www.margiepalatini.com http://www.fictionteachers.com/classroomtheater/theater.html http://hometown.aol.com/rcswallow/ http://www.readingonline.org/electronic/elec_index.asp?HREF=carrick/index.html http://www.literacyconnections.com/ReadersTheater.html http://bms.westport.k12.ct.us/mccormick/rt/RTHOME.htm http://www.readerstheatre.ecsd.net/collection.htm http://www.vtaide.com/png/theatre.htm   Read Alouds: http://www.trelease-on-reading.com – comprehensive website on read alouds by Jim Trelease, author of the Read Aloud Handbook. Printable brochures on various aspects of read-alouds are also available. http://www.readingrockets.org/blog/16287 – informational site with areas for parents, teachers, students, and librarians http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/better.read.aloud.html – instructions for read alouds – information plus ideas for extending the read aloud http://www.randomhouse.com/rhpg/promos/greatbooks/boys/tips.html – read aloud tips   Comprehension : http://www.readingquest.org/strat/ http://www.readingrockets.org/article/3479/ http://www.literacy.uconn.edu/compre.htm (Scroll down to comprehension section) http://teacher.scholastic.com/LessonPlans/pdf/oct_nov05/9SixComprehension.pdf http://www.justreadnow.com/strategies/organization.htm http://www.readingrecovery.org/reading_recovery/federal/Essential/comprehension.asp http://www.adlit.org/strategy_library/ http://www.literacy.uconn.edu/adolit.htm http://www.ngsp.net/Portals/0/Downloads/HBNETDownloads/Edge_Mono_Moore1.pdf   Fluency:   Vocabulary: ttp://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/VocabularyStrategies.html http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/vocabulary.html http://www.cobbk12.org/cheathamhill/lfs%20update/vocabulary%20and%20word%20walls.htm http://www.justreadnow.com/strategies/vocabulary.htm http://www.k12reader.com/effective-strategies-for-teaching-vocabulary/ http://web.cesa5.k12.wi.us/site_uploads/news/newsfile1845_1.pdf http://www.readingquest.org/strat/wordmap.html   General websites and list serves: http://www.ncte.org/dayonwriting/about http://readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/tools.htm. http://readinglady.com .www.readinga-z.com http://www.teachersnetwork.org http://www.sitesforteachers.com http://www.preschoolprintables.com http://www.crayola.com http://www.freecoloringpages.com http://www.coloring.com http://www.discoverykids.com http://www.ditk-kids.com http://www.disney.go.com http://www.abcteach.com http://www.kidszone.com http://www.schoolexpress.com http://www.tinsnips.com http://www.senteacher.com http://www.edhelper.com http://www.brailebooks.com http://www.prekpages.com http://www.hubbardscubbard.com http://www.macte.com http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons http://hill.troy.k12.mi.us/staff/bnewingham/myweb3/ http://www.lauracandler.com/ http://www.kinderkorner.com/colors.html Color http://www.ttms.org http://www.eddept.wa.edu.au .www.textmapping.org/ http://www.share2learn.com/index.html An excellent site for literacy in general http://www.middleweb.com/ReadWrkshp/RWndex.html Focused on upper elementary and middle school. http://www.four-blocks.com http://www.saraholbrook.com Great poetry site. http://www.niehs.nih/gov/kids/lyrics https://ttms.org/ Starfall.com http://www.readkiddoread.com <http://www.readkiddoread.com&gt; http://www.aaronshep.com http://storytrail.com/pages/why.html http://www.frankserafini.com/index.html Great website. book lists. He’s a prof with http://www.lexile.com http://www.guidedreading.scholastic.ca/index http://www.ala.org AR bookfinder.com State DOE…. Ed Policy http://www.asu.edu/educ/epsl/epru.htm Professional Organizations http://www.reading.org International Reading Association http://www.ncte.org/about National Council Teachers of English http://www.writingproject.org http://www.tolerance.org/teach/index Subscribe to free magazine focused on teaching tolerance/critical issues http://www.heineman.org http://www.stenhouse.org http://www.makebeliefscomix.com/comic http://www.reading.org   http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/   http://www.readwritethink.org   http://www.choiceliteracy.com/   http://owl.english.purdue.edu   http://www.readingteachersnetwork.org/   http://dww.ed.gov/   http://storyoftheweek.loa.org   http://www.teachingstrategies.com/   http://www.ncte.org   http://www.brainpopjr.com/   http://www.benchmarkeducation.com   http://www.nea.org http://thereadinglady.org http://www.powayusd.com/projects/edtechcentralnew/k-1Standards.htm http://www.consciousdiscipline.com http://www.drjean.org http://www.preschoolactivitybox.com http://www.first-school.ws/INDEX.HTM http://www.kinderpages.com http://www.treasureboxtoys.com http://www.kidssoup.com/ http://www.makinglearningfun.com http://www.pbs.org/teachers/ http://www.redshift.com http://www.education.com Book Leveling Sites     Book Levels by Publisher: BSD: Leveled Books Database Books for Teachers ~ Page 5 Correlations & Leveling Level I LeveledBooks.com – The Best Books for Emergent & Beginning Leveled Text List Database of leveled books http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Hollow/1213/teacherbooks5.html http://204.98.1.2/isu/langarts/alphaoct99.pdf http://www.k111.k12.il.us/lafayette/fourblocks/wright_group_table.htm http://www.k111.k12.il.us/lafayette/fourblocks/book_levels.htm Leveling sites are listed below. http://204.98.1.2/isu/langarts/bklst.html http://registration.beavton.k12.or.us/lbdb/default.htm http://www.teachers.k12.sd.us/pa004/Leveled%20Book%20List%20Sit es.htm http://www.pps.k12.or.us/curriculum/literacy/leveled_books/ http://www.leveledbooks.com/ http://users.oasisol.com/daireme/book.htm       AR Levels: http://www.mury.k12.ut.us/LGV/LGV.htm Google: Rigby and Scholastic http://www.rigby.com/corrlevel/level/charts/readlevel.asp http://www.wrightgroup.com/literacy/level.php http://www.Suite101.com http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/1411/91865 Website is http://www.WRightGroup.com Steck-Vaughn – 10 pg. booklet titled Guided Reading Leveled Books and Sets. It doesn’t give word counts and uses the following leveling criteria from Fountas and Pinnell: Level A = Grade level K Level B = Grade level K-1 Levels C-H = Grade level 1 Level I = Grade level 1 (late) Level J = Grade level 2 (early) Level K-M = Grade level 2 Example: Level L: Carlita Ropes the Level N = Grade level 3 Level O = Grde level 3-4 Steck-Vaughn Co. 1-800-531-5015 http://www.steck-vaughn.com or email: info@steckvaughn.com  

Assessment

FormalInformal
QRI 5-Qualtative Reading Inventory   Oral Reading & Writing Observations   LELA- Language and Early Literacy Assessment   HM.com PearsonGroup.com StoryTown.com   (DIBELS) Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy   Multiple-choice exam   Essays   Short-answer or problem-solving exam   The 6+1 Traits rubricReading Logs Ongoing Graphic Organizers Post-it Notes Documents use of strategies Author Style Chart Documents knowledge of authors studied Audio/Video Tapes Rubrics (Fluency, Readers Theatre, writing, reading, spelling, essay, etc.) Anecdotal Records Running Records Running Records http://www.readinga-z.com/newfiles/levels/runrecord/runrec.html Observation http://www.teachervision.fen.com/read-aloud/assessment/48545.html Lab report Research paper Oral Presentations Comprehensive portfolios  
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Published by Tricia Cook, MEd., Online Dyslexia and Behavioral Interventionist, RSP, AA O-G Tutor & Montessorian

My interest is in helping parents and teachers to understand learning and behavioral challenges and to love learning again. I graduated from Auburn in ECE in 1998. I have been a Montessori teacher here in Birmingham for almost 12 years and have lived in Birmingham for the past 19 years. As an early childhood teacher, I want continue to grow and develop as a constant learner. In 2012, I graduated from Secondary Education with a P-12 Reading Specialist certification the University of Alabama. As a Reading Specialist, I train on diversity and literacy development; I have a specialized knowledge of assessment and diagnosis that is vital for developing, implementing, and evaluating your literacy and neurodiversity behavioral, character development programing. Also, I have varying experiences designing instruction and environments for Montessori and Non-Montessori (OSR-Pre-K) environments. Therefore, I can consult for any environment or setting! In 2013, I attained my highly qualified status in ECE and Reading. In 2013, I also got my Orton-Gillingham AA tutor certification. I currently tutor full-time along with consulting. I have actually been tutoring since 2003. Along with other independent tutoring/interventionist experiences, I have brought dozens of students from an emergent to an advanced reading level! In addition to tutoring, I have provided the reading strengths and needs of my students and share that information to classroom teachers, parents, specialized teachers, and other stakeholders.  Lastly, I have also been a trainer/presenter, since 2008 and really enjoy this aspect of my career. As an experienced trainer, I have trained on many topics including: literacy (the five components), classroom management, positive discipline, diversity character development, Montessori Philosophy, policies and procedures, child development, and Alabama's Pre-k. Take note: Schools and families are desperately looking for an alternative type of affordable multi-sensory, hands-on, and interesting instruction. Currently, I am training and interested in writing on the following topics: A Comparison of Pre-K to Kindergarten; Adolescent Literacy (7th+); Assessment; Developing Readers; Children’s Literature; Classroom Management Techniques; Comprehension; Montessori Philosophy; Environmental Print & Early Writing; Family Attachment; Language and Literacy; Outdoor Classroom; Poetry Writing (7th+); Positive Guidance; Fine-motor Development; Cursive Writing; Creative Writing; Comprehension: Study Skills/Test Taking Strategies; Morphology; Phonics Instruction; Diversity Education; Neurodiversity Education; HandWriting; Reading Strategies; Best Practices P-12. Thank you, Tricia Cook, MEd., RSP, AOG; https://linktr.ee/tcooktutor

2 thoughts on “Reading IN Research For Literacy: Looking to Heal OUR Own [Learning] Difference Through Discovering Mind Maps, Answering “Synonymous Whys”, and Critical Thinking (Cook, 2020)

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